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The race- and sex-specific incidence rates of definite SLE per 100,000 persons were 0.4 in white males, 3.5 in white females, 0.7 in African American males, and 9.2 in African American females.
Evidence suggests that SLE is more common in African American and Hispanic groups than in whites.
No definite studies are available, but lupus exacerbations are more commonly seen in younger patients during pregnancy.
The incidence of lupus is dramatically higher in women than in men.
Increased SLE disease activity is expected during pregnancy because of increased levels of estrogen, prolactin, and T–helper cell 2 cytokines.
The incidence of exacerbations during pregnancy and the postpartum period, especially in women in remission at the beginning of pregnancy, has been progressively diminishing over the past few decades.
None of the medications used in the treatment of SLE is absolutely safe during pregnancy.
In the United States, the prevalence of SLE in female African Americans ranges from 17.9-283 cases per 100,000.
During the childbearing years, the female-to-male ratio is about 9:1.
In patients with SLE that begins during childhood or later, the female-to-male ratio is approximately 2:1.
Constitutional symptoms suggestive of SLE disease activity may be present.
Most patients with lupus report fatigue during pregnancy.
No definite studies are available, but lupus exacerbations are more commonly seen in African American patients during pregnancy.